Wednesday, 1 June 2016

The Importance of Writing Clearly for Business

Creating written documents reveals so much about you and your business skills. Your writing tells the reader about your educational background, pride in your work and business expertise. The emergence of the paperless office, e-mail, the internet and web pages only increases the power of the written word. Any company with employees who can write clearly and concisely has a competitive edge over others who are still struggling to communicate.
Is your correspondence free of any errors? In this day of computers with spell and grammar check, it is so easy to let your writing skills lapse. The computer scans the correct spelling of a word, but it is a homonym with the wrong meaning for your sentence. This error shows the reader that either you don't know the difference or you're too lazy to check and edit.
Is your writing full of words that people don't understand? Many times, you are so rushed to compose a business document that you use easy methods to get it done. The result is business documents are often filled with buzzwords, cryptic dialogue and outdated phrases. Readers won't say that they don't understand what you are writing, but will note not to use your business services. Keep your writing simple and current. Writing styles are like fashion and have indeed changed over the years. You must keep up with today's business practices and expectations, but beware of certain crutches such as buzzwords, industry jargon and cliches. Buzzwords are trendy terms and expressions that sometimes mean nothing, but seem impressive. "Like fertilizer, buzzwords are spread generously over documents in hope that brilliant ideas will miraculously take root. Unfortunately, ideas don't grow in manure," describes Will Stockdell, a professional Internet writer. You want to make sure that everyone understands your written ideas.
The last thing you want to do is to give the impression that your writing is too formal or outdated. A more direct way of writing has replaced some standard business phrases. Examples of this are "As per your request" now becomes "As you requested" or "Enclosed please find " now becomes "I am enclosing." Also, the previous impersonal style of business writing that avoided the use of "I" has been changed to use a limited amount of "I" to give directness and warmth.
How often have you typed away what you wanted to say, rather than what you needed to write? Slipping into abbreviated dialogue is so easy to do instead of expressing complete thoughts in a sentence. Perhaps, because we are a telephone-oriented society, the keyboard simply becomes an extension of our phone voice and frequently incomplete phrases dominate a message. Readers may think that this writing also indicates your incomplete logic and business services.
Do you use correct English? As far as incorrect punctuation, awkward sentences and bad grammar, you need to examine your writing skills and take these steps to improve them:
1. Audit your business writing yourself and try to learn from your mistakes. Use your computer grammar tools, but double-check with a dictionary or grammar book.
2. Find someone who can edit your material.
3. Hire employees for writing skills. In this way, you will have someone around to edit or write material for you.
4. Read. Reading will improve your writing skills. Keep on hand business documents that you admire.
5. Practice. Don't just pick up the phone to communicate; get in the habit of expressing your ideas in letters or e-mail.
6. Seek professional resources. Consult books like Gloria Pincu's Bull's Eye Business Writing: 10 Easy Guides for Getting to Your Writing Target. Search the Internet. Seek training courses.
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Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Why Do We Use RFC 1918 Private Address Ranges?

When you're studying to pass the CCNA, you're introduced to "private addresses", the address ranges formally referred to as RFC 1918 Private Addresses. (RFC stands for Request For Comment; to see a typical RFC, just put that term in your favorite search engine.)
There are three ranges of 1918 Private Addresses, one in each major network class.
Class A: /8
Class B: /12
Class C: /16
Be careful - these masks are not the classful network masks you're familiar with!
The need for private address ranges arose when we started running out of IP addresses! (A lot of us never thought that would happen, but a lot of us used to think we'd never need storage units bigger than floppy disks, too.) You can imagine that as networks began to be installed in offices and schools worldwide, the finite number of IP addresses became a restrictive factor.
Many devices that were using these precious IP addresses did not need to communicate with any device outside its own local area network (LAN). Therefore, these devices could be assigned an IP address that could be used on another device in another LAN - but these devices would not be able to communicate across the Internet.
It was decided to create network address ranges that would be used exclusively for such devices. That's why when you go from one local area network to another, you'll usually see hosts with IP addresses from the above three ranges.
Of course, as time went on, more and more of these devices did need to reach hosts across the Internet. That's where NAT - Network Address Translation - comes into play. But that is a subject for another tutorial!
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Complete Article Writing Guide - Your Guide to Writing Effective Articles - Part 5

1. Set your articles apart from the rest. Why would online users pick your articles? It's important that you give these people valid reason to choose your articles over your competitors. It would help if you offer new, hot information and if you target different angles that were not or seldom explored.
2. Be different. Avoid being someone else's copycat. Keep in mind that if there is only one thing that can help you succeed in the online arena, it would be originality. Make a name for yourself and make your articles more popular by using different styles and concepts.
3. Stick with the truth. It is not uncommon that other article marketers are resorting to blatant lies just to capture the attention of their target audience. You wouldn't want to follow their footsteps as this can seriously damage your online reputation. Ensure that each of your articles is based on facts so you will not mislead or misinform your readers.
4. Constantly improve your writing skills. As a writer, it's a must that you exert time and effort to get better at what you do. Aside from constant practice and reading relevant resources, it would also help if you attend writing seminars that are being offered by world renowned article writers.
5. Expand your vocabulary. You need to know the perfect terms to use when sharing your thoughts and ideas. As such, I recommend that you learn at least 1-3 word per day to expand your vocabulary. Ensure that the words you use are those that your target readers can easily identify with.
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GCSE Coursework Examples Can Help Students Write Their Own Coursework Effectively

Coursework of any kind requires dedication, effort and time. In order to ensure that students get a good grade for coursework they need to apply themselves and be prepared for the grueling work load which comes with coursework. As there is much theoretical and practical elements to coursework it is important that students ensure that they do a good job. Many however, are not proficient with what they should do when doing GCSE coursework. In instances such as these few well written GCSE coursework examples can come to the student's rescue by providing and idea of how to approach the coursework task and what it should contain.
What is GCSE Coursework?
The General Certificate of Secondary Education is a certificate provided to students living in countries such as Wales, England and Northern Ireland. Students who complete form 5 and at the age group of 14 to 16 select certain subjects and take the exam. The GCSE curriculum now combines coursework and examinations to facilitate those students who find exam condition too stressful and unable to score well in them. Most coursework account for 30% of the overall grade while it may go up to 40% in some subjects. Therefore, students must ensure that they treat the coursework assignments with equal importance as the GCSE examinations itself.
As coursework requires students to submit written academic papers, it is important to gain a proper knowledge of writing them effectively. Different coursework has different ways of writing. For example, writing a geography coursework paper is different from writing an English coursework. Many students find the writing aspect of their coursework challenging as they need to combine many skills in to producing a well written academic paper. By going through a few GCSE coursework examples students are able to;
  • obtain new and innovative ideas as to how to write their coursework
  • learn the many types of formats which are to be adhered
  • obtain information on certain subjects
  • Have an understanding of the standard of writing, analysis and evidence inclusion
  • learn how to organize their coursework papers logically and cohesively
Apart from these benefits, by going through a few examples students will be able to kick start their own creativity and ideas that can help come up with a proper coursework.
Obtaining Examples of GCSE Coursework
Coursework examples of GCSE can be found online through many online academic writing services. These writing services provide coursework examples which have been written by professionals and as a result students are guaranteed that the examples they download are authentic and are written accordingly. Many students will find examples useful as it provides direction with the students' own work and guide them on the approach to be taken in handling coursework.
GCSE coursework is an important aspect of students' lives. Passing them well lays the foundation to progress on to higher levels of academic studies as A Level or Baccalaureate certifications. By referring to GCSE examples, students can make their own coursework more effective and geared towards the coursework requirements.
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Writing Essays - Seeing the New View in Carl Sagan's Essay, The Abstraction of Beasts

If you'll follow and learn this three-step method of analyzing published essays I show here, you'll be able to understand published essays and write your own essays about them.
Carl Sagan has written an excellent essay, "The Abstraction of Beasts," providing another strong illustration of the old view - new view pattern intuitively used in all published essays.
#1 - Usually in the first paragraph, an old view is stated that leads directly to a new view thesis, most often a reversal of the old view. The new view thesis is stated at the end of that paragraph or within the next paragraph or two or so, depending on the length of the essay.
You noticed, didn't you, that Sagan immediately identifies the old view in the very first sentence of the first paragraph:
"Beasts abstract not," announced John Locke, expressing mankind's prevailing opinion throughout recorded history.
Hard to miss, right? But did you spot the new view thesis in his second paragraph? There, Sagan suggests his new view thesis reverse of the old view with two questions:
Could abstract thought be a matter not of kind but of degree? Could other animals be capable of abstract thought but more rarely or less deeply than humans?
Note that, although he's suggesting a reverse of the old view, Sagan is saying, not of kind but of degree and but more rarely or less deeply than humans. So he's suggesting that the reverse of Beasts abstract not is possible- that beasts actually do abstract - but perhaps not a complete reversal, not fully up to the level of human abstracting. Now read paragraphs three and four of the essay (begins, We have the impression that) and four (begins, There is, of course,). In that third paragraph-after restating in the first sentence the idea that animals are not very intelligent-Sagan asks a long question: But have we examined the possibility of animal intelligence carefully enough, or, as in Francois Truffaut's poignant film "The Wild Child," do we simply equate the absence of our style of expression of intelligence with the absence of intelligence?
The important part of that question is the very last part - or do we simply equate the absence of our style of expression of intelligence with the absence of intelligence?
To respond to that question, Sagan then provides a quote from Montaigne (who in 1580 published the first book ever on essays) that questions man's ability to communicate, not animals' ability to communicate. (Ignore the footnote in the essay, but read it later, okay?)
The first sentence of the fourth paragraph begins by reversing the first sentence of the third paragraph (animals are not very intelligent), or at least indicating that there's an exception: There is, of course, a considerable body of anecdotal information suggesting chimpanzee intelligence.
With that beginning, you expected to find more about chimpanzee intelligence, right?
Now read paragraphs five (begins, Wallace concluded), six, and seven to see if you do find that out. Pay special attention to the last sentence of that seventh paragraph.
Paragraphs five, six, and seven do provide examples of animals showing some signs of intelligence: the baby orangutan, the chimpanzee genius, the two chimpanzees abusing the chicken, and the newborn chimp with the newborn baby being raised as equals in a human household. But at age three, the chimp could say only three words, with enormous difficulty, while the human child was happily babbling away.
Sagan then summarizes those examples by stating that chimps are only minimally competent with language, reasoning, and other higher mental functions, and he repeats the old view again: Beasts abstract not. That could be a signal the new view support is about to begin.
Now, in Sagan's essay, read the next four paragraphs, starting with the paragraph beginning, But in thinking over these experiments and reading through the paragraph that starts with, There is by now.
In the first three of the next four paragraphs (beginning with, But in thinking over these experiments), Sagan points out how Beatrice and Robert Gardner had the brilliant idea of teaching chimpanzees a language they didn't have to use with their mouths, the American sign language, Ameslan. Sagan doesn't use enough keywords to let us know he's getting back to the new view, but that's just what he's doing-and support does follow right away, starting with, There is by now.
#2 - Right after the new view thesis is stated, support for it begins with a story, an example, or reasoning.
And in the paragraph that begins, There is by now, Sagan generalizes that there's a vast library of descriptions and films of chimpanzees using sign language, and then he narrows down his information to the fact that chimps are remarkably inventive in the construction of new words and phrases. In other words, chimpanzees are recorded on film-and in other ways-many times in the act of abstracting with Ameslan. (It would have been helpful if Sagan had come right out and used the keywords abstract or abstracting or abstractions, right?)
Then, despite not using introductions like for instance or for example for the next six paragraphs, Sagan gives specific examples of exact words and phrases of abstractions created and used by chimpanzees.
Take a good look at that by going back to the essay and reading from the paragraph starting, On seeing for the first time, all the way through the paragraph starting, Having learned the sign 'open' with a door. Then return here so we can round out our discussion on support for the new view thesis.
After all those examples of abstractions, the rest of the support for the new view thesis that beasts do abstract much like humans, includes-
  • Boyce Rensberger, the American reporter, talking Ameslan with Washoe, the chimp (Ameslan was Rensberger's first language)
  • Chimpanzees & other primates learning other gestural languages
  • Signing primates compared with microcephalic humans
  • Chimps have parts of their left brain removed, resulting in loss of language capability, just as that removal does in humans
  • Primates passing on information from generation to generation
  • The mini-story of Helen Keller learning language
  • A quote from Charles Darwin about the effects of using language
#3 - The conclusion should briefly restate the new view thesis, summarize the thesis support from body paragraphs, and look to some future aspect of the new view.
In the fifth paragraph before the conclusion, which begins, The continued use, Sagan begins looking to the future.
Go and read that paragraph, and read through to the end of the essay.
In that paragraph, Sagan asks questions about what would happen if chimpanzees were to establish a tradition of sign language usage for a couple of hundred years - or even for a couple of thousand years, such as we humans have done with language. And he speculates that in a few thousand years chimpanzees might have myths and legends about the origins of their language, just as we have our legends of Prometheus about the origins of mankind's language.
Then, in the very last paragraph of the essay, Sagan backs up and begins talking about the possibility that we humans may have systematically exterminated or killed nonhuman primates because they were competition for us, and so we cut off their progression toward a civilized, language-oriented future:
We may have been the agent of natural selection in suppressing the intellectual competition. I think we may have pushed back the frontiers of intelligence and language ability among the nonhuman primates until their intelligence became just indiscernible. In teaching gestural language to the chimpanzees, we are beginning a belated attempt to make amends.
Sagan's conclusion is weak on restating the old view and on summarizing main points that support the new view thesis. But the last sentence of Sagan's essay does suggest a future continuation of mankind's current effort to teach sign language to chimpanzees with, We are beginning a belated attempt to make amends. If we are beginning, then that strongly suggests more to follow in the future.
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The Value of Written Communication

Have you ever stopped to consider the value associated with written communication? While our society has become so driven by the visual and the verbal, it is written communications that provide daily direction to us as individuals and to our society as a whole.
Consider these elements of value provided by written communication:
• Written communications INFORM. Would you be pleased to know that the pilot of your jetliner is going over the preflight checklist from memory? Or the pharmacist is ignoring your physician's orders and guessing which medicine you require? Or your employer failing to notify you in writing of an important change in your medical benefits? Obviously, we need written communications to provide information and facilitate understanding. We read newspapers, books, and magazines. We decide on what to eat from reading a menu. We make purchases based upon written specifications and reviews. With the veritable explosion of information now available to anyone with an internet connection, we can become informed on virtually anything/everything.
• Written communications PROVIDE CLARITY. While any form of communication can be confusing or ambiguous, as a general rule written communications provide more clarity than verbal instructions. Written communications, as opposed to the verbal form, can be referred to repeatedly if one's memory is less than stellar. Presidents send our armed forces to war with written orders. Military commanders develop plans and issue their own written orders. Rules of engagement are provided in written form to combatants. Clarity is typically better served in writing.
• Written communications PROVIDE A BASIS FOR AN ORDERLY SOCIETY. Our laws are developed, interpreted, and communicated to citizens in written form, from Supreme Court decisions to posted speed limits to search warrants. Our public entities and private companies publish written codes of conduct to establish standards of acceptable behavior. Our games are guided by written rules of play (imagine how players and fans would react if game officials ad-libbed the rules and the home team lost!).
• Written communications are TIMELESS. Moses didn't rely on his memory for the Ten Commandments. We have the documents of our nation's history-the Constitution and Declaration of Independence, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Eisenhower's message on the eve of D-Day-that are preserved and revered in their written form. Letters we write to friends and loved ones are saved and appreciated for years, perhaps even generations.
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Advantages of Taking a Holiday in Your Own Country

If you have to make a choice of a holiday destination, will it be in your own country or will it be in another country? Of course, there are many attractions to holidaying abroad, the experience of a different culture, different landscape and lifestyle.
However, on a different angle, you too can have an enjoyable holiday in your own country. Many of us forget or take for granted the attractions in our own country. Sometimes, a foreign visitor knows more about these attractions.
Staycation is a new word that has come to use recently. A staycation is a vacation spent at your home or takes short trips from their home to area attractions, parks and nearby cities.
So why not consider the following points for a great staycation:
1. Rediscover places you have visited when you were young. Share your childhood holiday memories with your children.
2. You can do several short breaks like weekend breaks to the countryside, theatre breaks, adventure breaks or spa breaks.
3. Visit the tourism office and find out about new places to visit. Sometimes, being in our own country makes us complacent about trying new things or exploring new places.
4. Talk long walks in the countryside, you could discover hidden gems; scenery that you didn't know exists.
5. Travelling with the family is less of a hassle. There is no massive number of luggages to pack and no worries about food.
6. As you are familiar with the custom, language and way of life, all you need to do is relax and marvel at the beauty of your own country's landscape and history.
7. This is also a good time to go to the places you have always wanted to visit.
8. Instead of going overseas for holiday theme parks, why not explore your own holiday theme parks. You would be amazed that they offer the same kind of adventures at a lower cost.
9. Go for a camping holiday, it is easier to bring your gears such as tents, cooking utensils, bicycles and trekking boots when you are camping in your own country.
10. Find a new hobby or indulge in your interest. Go for a fishing holiday in permitted nature reserves, a boating and skiing holiday off the coast or a golf holiday in a golf resort.
The internet is a good place to look for 'Staycation' offers. Look out for offers for locals; these businesses need your custom even more now. Go on, this is the time to rediscover your country and its splendor.
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What to Do If You Are Considering Law School

Today, many college graduates are considering law school. Many Ohioans, for example dream of becoming a Cincinnati criminal defense attorney, since a Cincinnati criminal defense lawyer is well-paid and usually well respected throughout the area. However, in order to become a well-respected lawyer, you must go to school first. There are many things that must be accomplished however before one can even think about what it will be like in a law school classroom. If one is considering law school, they should start the application process late in their third year of undergraduate study or very early in the fourth year of undergraduate study. Here is a list and description of each item that must be completed in order to send an application to any accredited law school:
1. The first thing that should be accomplished is taking the LSAT. The LSAT, is much like the SAT students take before applying to undergraduate universities to test their aptitude. The LSAT is the same kind of test as it measures what the individual knows and it is thought to be an indicator as to how well the individual will do in law school. The average score on the LSAT is a 150.
2. The law school applicant also needs to have family friends, employers, or faculty from their undergraduate school write letters of recommendation. The applicant may also choose to write the letters his or her self and have them signed and approved by those listed above.
3. The applicant also needs to have an official transcript from their undergraduate career sent to each school applied to. From the transcript, people making the admittance decision can tell the kind of work ethic the applicant has and they can tell how much the applicant applied him or her self during their undergraduate career. Obviously, a person with good grades illustrates they did the work that was necessary to receive high grades and therefore that person will probably do the same in law school.
4. Most law schools also require the applicant write a few essays. The reason for this is that it is important in law school and in the law profession to have excellent writing skills. The essays are another indicator of what writing skills the applicant currently has and whether or not those skills are in line with what is required in law school.
5. Some law schools require resumes with the application, while others do not. It is always best to double check with each school to make sure the individual knows which schools require one and which do not.
As with every kind of application, whether for a job, graduate school, or undergraduate school it is always best to double check each school's application requirements to make sure they are met. Also, it is best to read the application several times during the application process to ensure the applicant is on track with their requirements. The process and requirements may seem overwhelming at first glance, but when each item is completed over the span of a few months there is not too much to do. The best thing to do is to start working on the application early and work through it at a reasonable, but timely pace so the applicant is not completely overwhelmed.
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